Match Manipulation

What is match manipulation?

Match manipulation can be defined as the unlawful influencing or alteration, directly or by an act or omission, of the course, result or any other aspect of a football match or competition. Match manipulation can be committed for various reasons, the most common being:


Also referred to as betting-related match manipulation, financial gain usually involves people off the pitch conspiring to manipulate a match or competition in order to obtain illicit proceeds through sports betting platforms. In such scenarios, a financial advantage is also offered to individuals on the pitch to unlawfully influence or alter the match.


Match manipulation for sporting advantage can be committed for a variety of outcomes, such as ensuring that a team progresses in a certain competition or in order to avoid relegation. This type of manipulation is generally not related to betting; however, it can still produce a financial benefit for those involved in the match manipulation scenario.


This can include any undue advantage for oneself or any third party relating to the manipulation of football matches or competitions.

What can match manipulation look like?

Match manipulation can constitute a variety of acts or omissions. The following non-exhaustive list shows the most common of them.

Any agreement or conspiracy (orally or in writing) between a match-fixer and one or more person aimed at unlawfully influencing or altering the result of a match or competition.

The deliberate loss of a match or a phase of a match, e.g. conceding goals, receiving yellow or red cards, conceding penalties on purpose.

Deliberately performing badly during a match, e.g. poor defending or attacking.

The deliberate misapplication of the Laws of the Game by the referee and/or other match officials, e.g. wrongfully awarding red or yellow cards, penalties, etc.

Interfering with the action on the pitch, the playing surface or equipment, e.g. cutting the power supply to a football stadium

Deliberately neglecting to take action on the pitch even though it would be required under the Laws of the Game, e.g. not awarding red or yellow cards, penalties, etc.

Last updated: Wednesday, 8 December 2021 at 16:08