What is it?

Semi-automated offside technology is a support tool for the video match officials and the on-field officials to help them make faster, more reproducible and more accurate offside decisions.

How does it work?

The new technology uses 12 dedicated tracking cameras mounted underneath the roof of the stadium to track the ball and up to 29 data points of each individual player, 50 times per second, calculating their exact position on the pitch. The 29 collected data points include all limbs and extremities that are relevant for making offside calls.

The official match ball for the FIFA Women’s World Cup Australia & New Zealand 2023™, will provide a further vital element for the detection of tight offside incidents as an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor will be placed inside the ball. This sensor, positioned in the centre of the ball, sends ball data to the video operation room 500 times per second, allowing a very precise detection of the kick point.

By combining the limb- and ball-tracking data and applying artificial intelligence, the new technology provides an automated offside alert to the video match officials inside the video operation room whenever the ball is received by an attacker who was in an offside position at the moment the ball was played by a team-mate. Before informing the on-field referee, the video match officials validate the proposed decision by manually checking the automatically selected kick point and the automatically created offside line, which is based on the calculated positions of the players’ limbs. This process happens within a few seconds and means that offside decisions can be made faster and more accurately. After the decision has been confirmed by the referee on the pitch, the exact same positional data points that were used to make the decision are then generated into a 3D animation that perfectly details the position of the players’ limbs at the moment the ball was played. This 3D animation, which will always show the best possible perspectives for an offside situation, will then be shown on the giant screens in the stadium and will also be made available to FIFA’s broadcast partners to inform all spectators in the clearest possible way.

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How was it tested?

The semi-automated offside technology set-up and workflow have been successfully trialled at numerous test events and live at FIFA tournaments, including the FIFA Arab Cup 2021™ and the FIFA Club World Cup 2021™. During these matches, the new technology was able to support the video match officials by helping them to make more accurate and more reproducible offside decisions in a shorter period of time.


Here you can find answers and further clarification to the most frequently asked questions.

FIFA's Living Football

In this episode of FIFA's Living Football, we take a look at semi-automated offside technology that will be used at the FIFA World Cup 2022™ in Qatar. Chairman of FIFA's Referees Committee, Pierluigi Collina and FIFA's Director of Football Technology and Innovation, Johannes Holzmüller explain how the technology will offer a support tool for the video match officials and the on-field officials to help them make faster, and more accurate offside decisions. Watch the Living Football show below.

Last updated: Monday, 17 July 2023 at 16:55